College of Science Social links:

Minoru "Shino" Shinohara, PhD, FACSM (Japanese site)

Associate Professor

School of Biological Sciences (reorganized)
Biomedical Engineering Program Faculty
Bioengineering & Bioscience Program Faculty
Robotics & Intelligent Machines Participating Faculty
Neural Engineering Center Participating Faculty
Healthcare Robotics Participating Faculty
Georgia Institute of Technology

Director: Human Neuromuscular Physiology Lab

Office: 1309C at 555 14th Street NW, Atlanta
Email to Dr. Shinohara


  • Ph.D., Exercise Physiology and Biomechanics, University of Tokyo, Japan
  • M.S., Exercise Physiology and Biomechanics, University of Tokyo, Japan
  • B.S., Exercise Physiology and Biomechanics, University of Tokyo, Japan

Professional Experience

  • Assistant Professor, University of Tokyo, Japan
  • Visiting Assistant Professor, University of Colorado at Boulder
  • Research Associate, Pennsylvania State University
  • Senior Research Associate, University of Colorado at Boulder
  • Visiting Scholar, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan
  • Consultant, US Army Medical Department Center and School
  • Board Member, Superhuman Sports Academy
  • Consultant, Japan Fitness Association

Research Interests

Human Neuromuscular Physiology Lab web site

Dr. Shinohara's research interests include physiological and biomechanical mechanisms underlying motor skills (including human-robot interaction) and their adjustments and adaptations to altered autonomic nerve activity, aging or inactivity, neuromuscular fatigue, divided attention, and practice in humans. He uses state-of-the-art techniques in neuroscience, neuroengineering, physiology, and biomechanics (e.g., TMS, EEG, single motor unit recordings, EMG, microneurography, mechanomyography, ultrasound elastography/B-mode, exoskeleton robot) in identifying these mechanisms. He is also interested in Engineered Physical Activity & Sports.


  • APPH 6233 Aging Movement Control
  • APPH 8800 Seminar (Research Methods in Applied Physiology)
  • APPH 8802 Adaptations in Neuromuscular Control
  • APPH 8803 Neuromuscular Physiology

Honors, Awards, Recognition

  • Research Career Enhancement Award, American Physiological Society
  • Visiting Scholar Award, American College of Sports Medicine
  • Research Travel Award, American Society of Biomechanics
  • Vendor's Innovation in Research Award, American College of Sports Medicine Biomechanics Interest Group
  • New Investigator Award, Japanese Society for College Physical Education and Sports
  • Dedicated and Outstanding Associate Editor, Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
  • Fellow, American College of Sports Medicine
  • National Institutes of Health (NIH) Grant Panel: Motor Function, Speech and Rehabilitation (MFSR)
  • National Science Foundation (NSF) Fellowship Panel: GRF Neurosciences & Physiology
  • Other Grant Reviewer, Austrian Science Fund, Austria; Canada Foundation for Innovation, Canada; Dutch Technology Foundation, Netherlands; National Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC), Canada; Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NOW), Netherlands; University of Maryland; University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee; Research Foundation Flanders, Belgium, US Army Research Laboratory

Book Editor

Associate Editor

  • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
  • Advanced Robotics, Special Issue on "Super-Human Technology"

Editorial Board Member

  • Journal of Applied Physiology
  • Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
  • Journal of Motor Behavior

Regular Member

  • American College of Sports Medicine (Fellow)
  • American Physiological Society
  • American Society of Biomechanics
  • Society for Neuroscience
  • Neural Control of Movement Society

Guest Referee

Acta Physiologica, American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, Biomedical Engineering Online, British Journal of Sports Medicine, Clinical Neurophysiology, Current Sports Medicine Reports, European Journal of Applied Physiology, Experimental Brain Research, Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, Gait and Posture, Human Movement Science, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on Mechatronics, International Journal of Sport and Health Science , International Journal of Sports Medicine, Journal of American Aging Association, Journal of Applied Physiology, Journal of Biomechanics, Journal of Computational Neuroscience, Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, Journal of Gerontology, Journal of Motor Behavior, Journal of Neurophysiology, Medical Engineering & Physics, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Motor Control, Muscle & Nerve, Neural Plasticity, Neurorehabiliation and Neural Repair, Neuroscience, Neuroscience Letters, Parkinsonism and Related Disorders, PLoS One, Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, Somatosensory and Motor Research, Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation

Select Publications (Full list by Google Scholar)

  • Yoshitake Y, Kanehisa H, Shinohara M. Correlated EMG oscillations between antagonists during co-contraction in men. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2016.
  • Kim E, Kovalenko I, Lacey L, Shinohara M, Ueda J. Timing analysis of robotic neuromodulatory rehabilitation system for paired associative stimulation. IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters 1:1028-1035, 2016.
  • Taniguchi K, Shinohara M, Nozaki S, Katayose M. Acute decrease in the stiffness of resting muscle belly due to static stretching. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 25:32-40, 2015.
  • Weinberg L, Hasni A, Shinohara M, Duarte A. A single bout of resistance exercise can enhance episodic memory performance. Acta Psychologica 153:13-19, 2014.
  • Buharin VE, Butler AJ, Shinohara M. Motor cortical disinhibition with baroreceptor unloading induced by orthostatic stress. Journal of Neurophysiology 111:2656-2664, 2014.
  • Yoshitake Y, Takai Y, Kanehisa H, Shinohara M. Muscle shear modulus measured with ultrasound shear-wave elastography across a wide range of contraction intensity. Muscle & Nerve 50:103-113, 2014.
  • Salman M, Sabra KG, Shinohara M. Assessment of muscle stiffness using a continuously scanning laser-Doppler vibrometer. Muscle & Nerve 50:133-135, 2014.
  • Huo X, Johnson AN, Ghovanloo M, Shinohara M. Motor performance of tongue with a computer integrated system under different levels of background physical exertion. Ergonomics 56:1733-1744, 2013.
  • Yoshitake Y, Shinohara M. Oscillations in motor unit discharge are reflected in the low-frequency component of rectified surface EMG and the rate of change in force. Experimental Brain Research 231:267-276, 2013.
  • Maher RM, Hayes DM, Shinohara M. Quantification of dry-needling and posture effects on myofascial trigger points using ultrasound shear-wave elastography. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 94:2146-2150, 2013.
  • Kurita Y, Shinohara M, Ueda J. Wearable sensorimotor enhancer for fingertip using stochastic resonance effect. IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems 43:333-337, 2013.
  • Yoshitake Y, Shinohara M. Low-frequency component of rectified EMG is temporally correlated with force and instantaneous rate of force fluctuations during steady contractions. Muscle & Nerve 47:577-584, 2013.
  • Buharin VE, Butler AJ, Rajendra JK, Shinohara M. Enhanced corticospinal excitability with physiologically heightened sympathetic nerve activity. Journal of Applied Physiology 114:429-435, 2013.
  • Johnson AN, Shinohara M. Corticomuscular coherence with and without additional task in the elderly. Journal of Applied Physiology 112:970-981, 2012.
  • Johnson AN, Huo X, Ghovanloo M, Shinohara M. Dual-task motor performance with a tongue-operated assistive technology compared with hand operations. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 9:1, 2012.
  • Archer A, Atangcho P, Sabra KG, Shinohara M. Propagation direction of natural mechanical oscillations in the biceps brachii muscle during voluntary contraction. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 22: 51–59, 2012
  • Johnson AN, Wheaton LA, Shinohara M. Attenuation of corticomuscular coherence with additional motor or non-motor task. Clinical Neurophysiology 122:356-363, 2011
  • Shinohara M, Sabra K, Gennisson J-L, Fink M, Tanter M. Real-time visualization of muscle stiffness distribution with ultrasound shear wave imaging during muscle contraction. Muscle & Nerve 42: 438-441, 2010.
  • Ueda J, Ming D, Krishnamoorthy V, Shinohara M, Ogasawara T. Individual muscle control using an exoskeleton robot for muscle function testing. IEEE Transactions on Neural and Rehabilitation Systems Engineering 18: 339-350, 2010.
  • Kamibayashi K, Nakazawa K, Ogata H, Obata H, Akai M, Shinohara M. Invariable H-reflex and sustained facilitation of stretch reflex with heightened sympathetic outflow. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 19:1053-1060, 2009.
  • Shinohara M, Moritz CT, Pascoe MA, Enoka RM. Prolonged muscle vibration increases stretch reflex amplitude, motor unit discharge rate and force fluctuations in a hand muscle. Journal of Applied Physiology 99: 1835-1842, 2005.
  • Shinohara M, Latash ML, Zatsiorsky VM. Age effects on force production by the intrinsic and extrinsic hand muscles and finger interaction during maximal contraction tasks. Journal of Applied Physiology 95: 1361-1369, 2003.

Reviews and Chapters

  • Ueda J, Gallagher W, Moualeu A, Shinohara M, Feigh K. Adaptive Human-Robot Physical Interaction for Robot Co-workers. In: Ueda J and Kurita Y Ed, Human Modeling for Bio-Inspired Robotics, Academic Press, Elsevier, 297-333, 2016
  • Shinohara M. Adaptations in motor unit behavior in elderly adults. Current Aging Science 4: 200-208, 2011
  • Aoki T, Shinohara M, Kinoshita H. Motor control of individual fingers. In: Shinohara M Ed, Advances in neuromuscular physiology of motor skills and muscle fatigue. Research Signpost, 1-24, 2009.
  • Kouzaki M, Shinohara M. Alternation in muscle activity to reduce muscle fatigue. In: Shinohara M Ed, Advances in neuromuscular physiology of motor skills and muscle fatigue. Research Signpost, 351-367, 2009
  • Yoshitake Y, Shinohara M. Steady force control in multiple muscle systems. In: Shinohara M Ed, Advances in neuromuscular physiology of motor skills and muscle fatigue. Research Signpost, 127-138, 2009.
  • Shinohara M, Yoshitake Y, Kouzaki M. Alterations in synergistic muscle activation impact fluctuations in net force. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 41:191-197, 2009.
  • Shinohara M, Sogaard K. Mechanomyography for studying force fluctuations and muscle fatigue. Exercise and Sport Science Reviews 34: 59-64, 2006.
  • Latash ML, Shim JK, Shinohara M, Zatsiorsky VM. Changes in finger coordination with advanced age. Latash ML and Lestienne F, eds. Motor Control and Learning. New York: Springer, pp.141-160, 2006.
  • Shinohara M. Effects of prolonged vibration on motor unit activity and motor performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 37: 2120-2125, 2005.

Conference Organizer

  • Program Chair, 1st Workshop on Super Human Sports, Tsukuba, Japan, 2015
  • Co-chair of Sensorimotor track in the XIXth Congress of the International Society of Electrophysiology and Kinesiology, 2012.
  • Co-organizer of "Noise, Time Delay and Balance Control" at Banff International Research Station, 2009 (5-day workshop).